by Jan D. Bastmeijer ~ 2016
Suwidji Wongso & Co.
These pages are on the cultivation and taxonomy of plants of the genus Cryptocoryne & Lagenandra (Araceae)
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Interesting documents on Cryptocoryne and Lagenandra in the internet! As most literature is not easy to find (you will have to look at botanical institutes for example), there is a demand on available digital resources. Of course, most documents are unavailable in a digital way because of copyright reasons, but some are.
Contributions and links to other resources are welcome!

Updated June 2017

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Anderson, J.A.R. 1963 The Flora of the Peat Swamp
Forests of Sarawak and Brunei,
including a catalogue of all recorded
species of flowering plants, ferns
and fern allies
Gardens' Bulletin
20: 131-228 (parts)
pdf file, 2.3 MB
A very nice overview of the habitat of C. pallidinervia
Anderson, J.A.R. 1964 The Structure and Development of
the Peat Swamps of Sarawak and
The Journal of Tropical
Vol.18: 8-16
pdf file 850 kB
peat swamps and peat domes
Backer, C.A. 1934 Onkruidflora der Javasche Suikerrietgronden, Handboek
Suikerriet-Cultuur en de Suikerriet-Frabicage op Java
deel 7: 172-173 Backer1934
pdf file 250 kB
C. ciliata (in Dutch)
C.A. & R.C.
van den
1968 Cryptocoryne in: Flora of Java,
Vol. III: 125-126
pdf file 174 kB
C. ciliata (in Dutch)
J.D. &
1997 Zwei Cryptocorynen aus dem
Gunung- Leuser- Nationalpark
(Sumatra, Indenesien). 2. Teil: 
Cryptocoryne moehlmannii de Wit
Aqua Planta 22(2): 41, 43-50 Bastmeijer1997
pdf file 1.2 MB
incl. English translation (text only)
Two Cryptocoryne's from the Gunung Leuser Nationalpark (Sumatra, Indonesia). 2nd Part: Cryptocoryne moehlmannii de Wit
Bastmeijer, J.D. 2001 A new  Cryptocoryne  Hybrid
(Araceae) from the Bukit Timah
Nature Reserve, Singapore.
Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 53(2001):9-17 Bastmeijer2001download it from:
Singapore Botanical Garden
and fill in volume 53
Cryptocoryne ×timahensis
2002 Cryptocoryne yujii Bastmeijer
(Araceae), eine neue Art aus Sarawak
Aqua Planta 27:
pdf file 180 kB
incl. English translation (text only)
Cryptocoryne yujii Bastmeijer(Araceae), a new species from Sarawak
Bastmeijer, J.D. & N. Jacobsen 2007 Cryptocoryne bangkaensis Bastmeijer,
ein neuer Name fur eine gut bekannte Cryptocoryne von Sumatra (Indonesien)
Aqua Planta 32(2): 41, 44-55 Bastmeijer2007
pdf file 2.0 MB incl. English translation (text only)
Cryptocoryne bangkaensis Bastmeijer,a new name for a well known Cryptocoryne from Sumatra (Indonesia)
J.D., T. Idei
& N.
2010 Notes on Cryptocoryne (Araceae)of Thailand, including a new species
from Loei Province
Thai Forest Bulletin (Bot.) 38: 179-183 Bastmeijer et al 2010pdf file 1.3 MB Cryptocoryne cordata var. cordata & var. siamensis & Cryptocoryne loeiensis
Bastmeijer, J.D., P. Babics & C. Kettner 2012 Ein neue Cryptocoryne-Art (Araceae)
aus Sri Lanka (Ceylon)
Aqua-Planta 37(2): 50-59 Bastmeijer 2012
pdf file 1.2 MB incl. English translation (text only)
The description of C. waseri
Bastmeijer, J.D., H. Kishi, N.Takahashi, S. Wongso & N. Jacobsen 2013 Eine neue Varietät der Cryptocoryne ferrunginea Engl. von Sekadau, West Kalimantan, Indonesien Aqua Planta 38(3): 84-93

Bastmeijer2013 pdf file 1.8 MB incl. English translation (text only)

Description of the new C. ferruginea var. sekadauensis
Bastmeijer, J.D., K. Nakamoto & N. Jacobsen 2014 Cryptocoryne matakensis (Araceae),
eine neue Art von den Anambas-
Inseln (Indonesien)
Aqua Planta 39(2): 64-71

Bastmeijer2014 pdf file 1.8 MB incl. English translation (text only)

Description of the new C.matakenis
Bastmeijer J.D. et al 2016 Cryptocoryne wongsoiI (Araceae).
a new species from Sumatera,
Aroideana Vol. 39
no 2: 4-14

Bastmeijer2016 pdf file 0.9 MB


Beccari, O. 1882 drawings in: Malesia Vol. 1 Plate XXVII and Plate XXVIII Original drawings by Beccari, see also Engler 1879 (below)
Beccari, O 1904 Cryptocoryne in : Wanderings in the great forests of Borneo Beccari1904 pdf file 4 MB First records of Cryptocoryne in Sarawak, see the full text (33 MB) at: wanderingsingrea00becc
Berge, H.F.M ten 2014 Die Aquarienkultur von  Cryptocoryne und Barclaya in Buchenlauberde Aqua Planta 39(1): 16-25 Berge2014 pdf file 1.5 MB incl. English translation (text only How to make a peatswamp-aquarium with Cryptocorye and BarclayaI with some notes on fish
Blatter, E. & C. McCann 1931 Cryptocoryne Revision of the
Flora of the
Part XV: 13-18, 2 plates
pdf file 2 MB
Descriptions of C. tortuosa and C.cognatoides
Bogner, J. 2004 Cryptocoryne sivadasanii (Araceae)
,a new species from India
Wildenovia 34:
download from  Wildenovia
Up to 2004 this plant was assumed to be C. consobrina
Bogner, J. 2009 Cryptocoryne cruddasiana Prain,
eine endemische Art aus Myanmar
Aqua Planta 34(1):
4 - 13
Bogner2009 pdf file 1.3 MB incl.English translation (text only) A detailed description of C. cruddasiana
Bogner, J. 2013 Eine neue Variatat der Cryptocoryne spiralis (Retzius) Fischer ex Wydler
(Araceae) aus Indien
Aqua Planta 38(4): 141-148 Bogner2013 pdf file 1.3 MB incl.English translation (text only) the new var's caudigera and huegelii are described
Budianto, H. & J.D. Bastmeijer 2004 Eine neue Cryptocoryne-Art (Araceae)
aus Kalimantan (Indonesien)
Aqua Planta 29(4): 124-130 Budianto 2004
pdf file 1.5 MB, incl.English translation (text only)
Cryptocoryne ideii, a new species from
Central Kalimantan (Indonesia)
Croat, T. B. 2000 History and Current Status of
Systematic Research with Araceae


download from
the Int. Aroid Society

Includes a vast list of articles on Cryptocoryne
Engler, D.A. 1879 Cryptocoryne in Bull. Soc. Ort. Toscana 4: 301-302

Engler1879 pdf file 0.5 MB

Desciptions of Beccari's plants (in Latin)
Engler, D.A. 1920 Cryptocoryne in: Das Pflanzenreich Engler 1920-Cryptocoryne pdf file 4.9 MB 'State of the art' a century ago with references to older literature
Engler, D.A. 1920 Lagenandra in: Das Pflanzenreich Engler 1920-Lagenandra pdf file 1.6 MB 'State of the art' a century ago with references to older literature
Gasser, R. A. 1978 Catalogue 1-1-1978


pdf file 650 kB
This famous list - with comments by its author - gives an impressive picture of this excellent grower.
Griffith, W. 1851 Cryptocoryne Notulae ad Plantas Asiaticas III:
134-143; Icones Plantarum Asiaticarum III T.170,172. Calcutta
pdf file 1.4 MB
The original description of Cryptocoryne cordata var. cordata
Idei, T. 2006 Die natürliche Standorte der 
Cryptocoryne hudoroi Bogner &
Aqua Planta 31(4): 141, 151-161 Idei 2006
pdf file 1.8 MB incl. English translation (text only))
Habitat of Cryptocoryne hudoroi in Kalimantan
Idei, T. 2010 Der natürliche Standort von 
Cryptocoryne dewitii N. Jacobsen
(Araceae) in Papua Neuguinea
Aqua Planta 35(1): 23-28 Idei 2010a
pdf file 1 MB incl. English translation (text only)
Habitat of Cryptocoryne dewitii in Papua New Guinea
Idei, T. 2010 Geschichten vom Mekong: Zwei neue Cryptocorynen (Araceae) Aqua-Planta 35(4): 139-146 Idei 2010b
pdf file 1.1 MB incl. English translation (text only)
Stories from the Mekong: Two new Cryptocoryne (Araceae)(C. mekongensis C.crisp. var. decus-mekongensis)
Idei, T. 2012 Lagenandra undulata Sastry
(Araceae) aus Arunachal Pradreh,
Aqua Planta 37(1):
1, 10-18
Idei 2012
pdf file 1.3 MB incl. English translation (text only)
The rediscovery of L. undulata,with habitat pictures
Ipor et al. 2015 Cryptocoryne×batangkayanensis
(Araceae),a new hybrid from Sarawak.
Willdenowia 45:
Ipor2015 pdf file 7.4 MB A new hybrid between C. cordata var. grabowskii and C. ferruginea var. ferruginea.
Jacobsen, N. 1980 The Cryptocoryne albida group of
mainland Asia (Araceae)
Miscellaneous Papers 19: 183-204 Jacobsen1980
pdf file 2.3 MB
The old article dealing with the C.crispatula plants, with 'specimen visa'
Jacobsen, N. 1986 Deterioration of the habitats of the Cryptocoryne species. Symp.Bedreiging van het aquatisch milieu, Ludwigia, Wageningen : 33 Jacobsen1986
pdf file 120 kB
with a postscript from 1997
Jacobsen, N. 1991 Die schmalblattrigen Cryptocorynen
des asiatischen Festlandes
Aqua Planta 16(1):
pdf file 5.8 MB incl. English translation (text only)
An update of the 1980 article with description of the vars
Jacobsen, N. 1992 Cultivation of some difficult  Cryptocoryne species in humusrich
Aqua Planta 17(1): 18-25 Jacobsen1992
pdf file 1 MB incl. English translation (text only)
A classic article on the cultivation of Crypts from the peat swamps
Jacobsen, N. 2002 Der Cryptocoryne cordata Griffith-
Komplex (Araceae) in Malesien
Aqua Planta 27:
pdf file 200 kB incl. English translation (text only)
A new status for C.grabowskii, diderici and zonata
Jacobsen, N., J.D. Bastmeijer & Y.Sasaki 2002 Cryptocoryne ×purpurea Ridley nothovar. borneoensis N. Jacobsen, Bastmeijer & Y.Sasaki (Araceae), eine
neue Hybridvarietat aus Kalimantan
Aqua Planta 27:
pdf file 250 kB incl. English translation (text only)
A new hybrid from Kalimantan!
Jacobsen, N. & I.B. Ipor 2007 Ueber die Kultur von Barclaya-Arten(Nymphaeceae) Aqua Planta 32(3): 86-93 Jacobsen2007-Barclaya pdf file 1 MB First results in cultivating Barclaya species
Jacobsen, N. et al. 2013 The use of AFLP markers to elucidate ralationships within Cryptocoryne
Int. Aroid Conference, Hanoi, Dec 2013 Jacobsen2013, pdf file 1.4 MB focused on the relations within the crispatula group
Jacobsen, N. & J.D. Bastmeijer 2014 On Cryptocoryne cordata var. 
The Aquatic Gardener 27(2):
Jacobsen2014, pdf file 0.9 MB How to recognise a real C.cordata var. siamensis
Jacobsen, N. et al. 2014 A new variety of Cryptocoryne
versteegii (Araceae) from Irian Jaya
Tengah, Indonesia
Willdenowia 44:
pdf file 7.5 MB
C. versteegii var. jayaensis
Jacobsen, N. et al. 2015 A new calcicolous variety of 
Cryptocoryne nurii Furtado (Araceae)
from Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia
Malayan Nature Journal 2013, 65(4), 230-239 Jacobsen2015a, pdf file 1,4 MB C. nurii var. raubensis, a new limstone var with a long peduncle
Jacobsen, N. et al. 2015 Cryptocoryne nurii var. raubensis. A
new calcicolous variety from Pahang, Peninsula Malaysia
The Aquatic Gardener 28(2):
Jacobsen2105b, pdf file 1.0 MB A popular version in the TAG
Jacobsen, N. et al. 2015 Einige Fundtorte von Cryptocoryne crispatula (Araceae) im nordlichen
Aqua Planta 40(3): 93-104 Jacobsen2015


Jacobsen, N. et al. 2015 A new variety of Cryptocoryne crispatula Engl. (Araceae) from
Thai Forest Bulletin (Bot.) 43: 104-110 Jacobsen2015 pdf file 1.3 MB var. kubotae is the new name for a plant hitherto known as var. tonkinensis
Jacobsen, N. et al. 2015 The identity of Cryptocoryne crispatula var. tonkinensis (Araceae) Willdenowia 45(2) 177-182 Jacobsen2015 pdf file 6.5 MB Newly collected plants from Northern Vietnam prove the identity of var. tonkinensis.
Jacobsen, N. et al. 2015 The use of AFLP markers to elucidate relationships within Cryptocoryne
Aroideana Vol. 38E(1): 186-193 Jacobsen2015 pdf file 6 MB DNA analysis for a better understanding of grouping in Cryptocoryne
Jacobsen, N. et al. 2016 Cryptocoryne ×batangkayensis (Araceae) und Bemerkungen zu einigen anderen Arten Aqua Planta 41(2): 54-66 Jacobsen 2016 pdf file 1.5 MB incl. English translation (text only) A surpring hybrid...
idKettner, C. 2014 Cryptocoryne nurii 'Platinum' - eine wunderschöne neue Pflanze von der
Insel Lingga
Aqua Planta 39(3): 93-97 Kettner2014, pdf file 0.8 MB incl. English translation (text only) A new cultivar of C. nurii
Li, H & N.
2010 Cryptocoryne in: Flora of China download from:
Cryptocoryne crispatula var. yunnanensis
Milkuhn, F.G. 1949

Cryptocoryne haerteliana Jacobs.

Wochenschrift für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde 43: 288-290 Milkuhn1949, pdf file 320 kB (only German) The original description of C.haerteliana. A few years later it turned out that is was C.affinis.
Ng, H.H. and H.H. Tan 1999 The fishes of the Endau Drainage,Peninsular Malaysia with description of TwoNew Species of Catfishes(Teleostei: Akysidae,
Zoological Studies 38(3): 350-366 download from:
Zoological Studies
This article is on fish, but it gives data (+map) on the locality of C. affinis (what probably will be C. nurii)
Petch, T. 1928 Notes on Cryptocoryne Annals R.Bot.Gard., Peradeniya : Vol.11 part 1: 11- 26, pl 2-5 Petch1928
pdf file 1.5 MB
An extremely nice article on the status of Crypt research in Sri Lanka in 1928
Prain, D. 1900 Some new plants from Eastern India: Cryptocoryne cruddasiana Prain. J.As.Soc.Bengal, Vol LXIX : 174 Prain1900 pdf file ca. 200kB The original description of C.cruddasiana
Prain, D. 1901 Cryptocoryne cruddasiana Prain. Ann. Roy. Bot:Gard. Calc, Vol IX, part 1, plate 90 Prain1901 pdf file ca. 400 kB The nice drawing for Prain1900
Reitel, S. 2011 Kulturerfahrungen mit Cryptocoryne dewitii N. Jacobsen, einer
endemischen Art aus Papua-
Aqua Planta 36(2): 52-57 Reitel2011a
pdf file 680 kB incl. English translation (text only
Cultivation in beech tree leaf litter of C. dewitii
Reitel, S. 2011 Cryptocoryne sp."Yellow Ring", eine
Neuheit aus Pahang, Malaysia
Aqua Planta 36(4): 124-127 Reitel2011b
pdf file 430 kB incl. English translation (text only)
A natural hybrid between C.nurii and C. cordata var. cordata
Reitel, S., K. Nakamoto & J.D.Bastmeijer 2012 Die echte Cryptocoryne scurrilis de Wit (Araceae) Aqua Planta 37(4): 135-142 Reitel2012 pdf file 1.2 MB incl. English translation (text only) The identification of the 'real'scurrilis
1832 Ambrosinia Flora India III, 491- 494 Roxburgh1832
pdf file 1.6 MB
Enjoy the 180 y old article where Roxburgh explains the name 'retrospiralis'. Ambrosinia is a former name of the genus Cryptocoryne.
Sasaki, Y. 2002 Cryptocoryne uenoi Y.Sasaki
(Araceae), eine neue Art aus Sarawak
Aqua-Planta 27:
pdf file 289 kB incl. English translation (text only)
Cryptocoryne uenoi Y.Sasaki (Araceae), a new species from Sarawak
Schott, 1855 Cryptocoryne in: Aroideae Schott1855 pdf file 25 MB ! An old article on the Indian Cryptocoryne with plates of C. spiralis and 'C. huegelii'.
Schöpfel, H. 1995 Der gekräuselte Wasserkelch, 
Cryptocoryne crispatula
Das Aquarium 313
(7) : 22-26
Schoepfel1995 pdf file 0.5 MB, only German An overview of the then known plants in the crispatula group
M., V.A.
Jaleel and
B. Thomas
2001 Lagenandra keralensis (Araceae), a remarkable new species from India Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 42: 153-157 download from
Bot. Bull. Acad.Sin
A new Lagenandra species which seems most close to Cryptocoryne.
Tomey, W.A. 2003 Cryptocoryne keei Jacobsen(1982),
een kleintje onder de Cryptocorynen
uit de Sungai Air Sambas in
Kalimantan Barat
Het Aquarium 73
(9): 250-251
Tomey2003c pdf file 450 kB A slight? different plant from Kalimantan Barat (in Dutch)
Wight, R. & G. Walker-Arnott 1844 Cryptocoryne in: Icon. Plant.Ind. Orient. 3, plates
Wight1844 pdf file 850 kB Very nice drawings of C.ciliata var. ciliata, C. retrospiralis and C.spiralis var. spiralis. Note the old names
Wit, H.C.D.
1990 Cryptocoryne in: Aquarienpflanzen Cryptocoryne drawings in WAG
(doc file 200 kB)
Index of herbarium specimen to the plates
Wongso, S. & J.D. Bastmeijer 2005 Cryptocoryne noritoi Wongso
(Araceae), eine neue Art aus Ost- Kalimantan
Aqua Planta 30(3): 92-100 Wongso2005
pdf file 1.5 MB incl. English translation (text only)
Cryptocoryne noritoi Wongso (Araceae), a new species from East Kalimantan
Wongso et all 2016 Cryptocoryne aura (Araceae). a new
species from West Kalimantan,
Willdenowia 46:
Wongso2016 pdf file 9 MB A new species with a membraneous margin (aura) of the leaf
Wydler, H. 1830 Plantarum Quarundam Descriptiones Linnaea 5: 428-430 Wydler1830 pdf file 0.4 MB (in latin) Description of Cryptocoryne spiralis
Zhou H. 2004 Ayer Hitam Revence from: http://www.ikan
[now vanished]
pdf file 0.5 MB
Looing near Chaah for C.decus-silvae
Zhou H. 2005 Cryptocoryne crispatula Engler in der Provinz Guangxi, China Aqua Planta 30(4): 150-157 Zhou2005
pdf file 1.2 MB
Cryptocoryne crispatula Engler in the Guangxi province, China
Zhou H.,
H.W. He &
2010 Eine neue Varietat der Cryptocoryne crispatula Engler (Araceae) aus der
Provinz Guangxi, China
Aqua Planta 35(4): 134-138 Zhou2010
pdf file 0.7 MB
incl. English translation (text only)
A new variety of Cryptocoryne crispatula from the Guangxi province of China (var. planifolia)

See also the Structure pages: Foliage, rhizome and roots, Inside the kettle and SEM pictures

Updated February 2016

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